Happy New Year!
I’m finally getting ‘round to writing about a nasty bug that I had to spend a bunch of time with in Q4 2015. It’s one of the more challenging problems that I’ve had to break and I’ve been asked a lot of questions about it. I’m talking about bug 1218473.
How This All Began
In bug 1213567 I had landed a patch to intercept calls to
This was necessary because it was apparent in that bug that window subclassing
was occurring while a window was neutered (“neutering” is terminology that is
specific to Mozilla’s Win32 IPC code).
While I’ll save a discussion on the specifics of window neutering for another day, for our purposes it is sufficient for me to point out that subclassing a neutered window is bad because it creates an infinite recursion scenario with window procedures that will eventually overflow the stack.
Neutering is triggered during certain types of IPC calls as soon as a message is
sent to an unneutered window on the thread making the IPC call. Unfortunately in
the case of bug 1213567, the message triggering the neutering was
WM_CREATE. Shortly after creating that window, the code responsible would
subclass said window. Since
WM_CREATE had already triggered neutering, this
would result in the pathological case that triggers the stack overflow.
For a fix, what I wanted to do is to prevent messages that were sent immediately
during the execution of
CreateWindow (such as
WM_CREATE) from triggering
neutering prematurely. By intercepting calls to
CreateWindowEx, I could wrap
those calls with a RAII object that temporarily suppresses the neutering. Since
the subclassing occurs immediately after window creation, this meant that
this subclassing operation was now safe.
Where to Start
It wasn’t obvious where to start debugging this. While a crash spike was clearly
correlated with the landing of bug 1213567, the crashes were occurring in
code that had nothing to do with IPC or Win32. For example, the first stack that
I looked at was
When it is just not clear where to begin, I like to start by looking at our correlation data in Socorro – you’d be surprised how often they can bring problems into sharp relief!
In this case, the correlation data didn’t disappoint: there
was 100% correlation
with a module called
_etoured.dll. There was also correlation with the
presence of both NVIDIA video drivers and Intel video drivers. Clearly this
was a concern only when NVIDIA Optimus technology was enabled.
I also had a pretty strong hypothesis about what
_etoured.dll was: For many
years, Microsoft Research has shipped a package called
Detours. Detours is a
library that is used for intercepting Win32 API calls. While the changelog for
Detours 3.0 points out that it has “Removed [the] requirement for including
detoured.dll in processes,” in previous versions of the package, this library
was required to be injected into the target process.
I concluded that
_etoured.dll was most likely a renamed version of
detoured.dll from Detours 2.x.
Following The Trail
Now that I knew the likely culprit, I needed to know how it was getting there. During a November trip to the Mozilla Toronto office, I spent some time debugging a test laptop that was configured with Optimus.
Knowing that the presence of Detours was somehow interfering with our own API
interception, I decided to find out whether it was also trying to intercept
CreateWindowExW. I launched
windbg, started Firefox with it, and then told
it to break as soon as
user32.dll was loaded:
Then I pressed
F5 to resume execution. When the debugger broke again, this
user32 was now in memory. I wanted the debugger to break as soon as
CreateWindowExW was touched:
ba w 4 user32!CreateWindowExW
Once again I resumed execution. Then the debugger broke on the memory access and gave me this call stack:
nvd3d9wrap!setDeviceHandle+0x1c91 nvd3d9wrap!initialise+0x373 nvd3d9wrap!setDeviceHandle+0x467b nvd3d9wrap!setDeviceHandle+0x4602 ntdll!LdrpCallInitRoutine+0x14 ntdll!LdrpRunInitializeRoutines+0x26f ntdll!LdrpLoadDll+0x453 ntdll!LdrLoadDll+0xaa mozglue!`anonymous namespace'::patched_LdrLoadDll+0x1b0 KERNELBASE!LoadLibraryExW+0x1f7 KERNELBASE!LoadLibraryExA+0x26 kernel32!LoadLibraryA+0xba nvinit+0x11cb nvinit+0x5477 nvinit!nvCoprocThunk+0x6e94 nvinit!nvCoprocThunk+0x6e1a ntdll!LdrpCallInitRoutine+0x14 ntdll!LdrpRunInitializeRoutines+0x26f ntdll!LdrpLoadDll+0x453 ntdll!LdrLoadDll+0xaa mozglue!`anonymous namespace'::patched_LdrLoadDll+0x1b0 KERNELBASE!LoadLibraryExW+0x1f7 kernel32!BasepLoadAppInitDlls+0x167 kernel32!LoadAppInitDlls+0x82 USER32!ClientThreadSetup+0x1f9 USER32!__ClientThreadSetup+0x5 ntdll!KiUserCallbackDispatcher+0x2e GDI32!GdiDllInitialize+0x1c USER32!_UserClientDllInitialize+0x32f ntdll!LdrpCallInitRoutine+0x14 ntdll!LdrpRunInitializeRoutines+0x26f ntdll!LdrpLoadDll+0x453 ntdll!LdrLoadDll+0xaa mozglue!`anonymous namespace'::patched_LdrLoadDll+0x1b0 KERNELBASE!LoadLibraryExW+0x1f7 firefox!XPCOMGlueLoad+0x23c firefox!XPCOMGlueStartup+0x1d firefox!InitXPCOMGlue+0xba firefox!NS_internal_main+0x5c firefox!wmain+0xbe firefox!__tmainCRTStartup+0xfe kernel32!BaseThreadInitThunk+0xe ntdll!__RtlUserThreadStart+0x70 ntdll!_RtlUserThreadStart+0x1b
This stack is a gold mine of information. In particular, it tells us the following:
The offending DLLs are being injected by
AppInit_DLLs(and in fact, Raymond Chen has blogged about this exact case in the past).
nvinit.dllis the name of the DLL that is injected by step 1.
nvd3d9wrap.dllwhich then uses Detours to patch our copy of
I then became curious as to which other functions they were patching.
Since Detours is patching executable code, we know that at some point it is
going to need to call
VirtualProtect to make the target code writable. In the
VirtualProtect’s caller is going to pass the address of the page
where the target code resides. In the best case, the caller will pass in the
address of the target function itself!
windbg, but this time I set a breakpoint on
I then resumed the debugger and examined the call stack every time it broke.
While not every single
VirtualProtect call would correspond to a detour, it
would be obvious when it was, as the NVIDIA DLLs would be on the call stack.
The first time I caught a detour, I examined the address being passed to
VirtualProtect: I ended up with the best possible case: the address was
pointing to the actual target function! From there I was able to distill a
list of other
functions being hooked by the injected NVIDIA DLLs.
Putting it all Together
By this point I knew who was hooking our code and knew how it was getting there.
I also noticed that
CreateWindowEx is the only function that the NVIDIA DLLs
and our own code were both trying to intercept. Clearly there was some kind of
bad interaction occurring between the two interception mechanisms, but what was
I decided to go back and examine a specific crash dump. In particular, I wanted to examine three different memory locations:
- The first few instructions of
- The first few instructions of
- The site of the call to
user32!CreateWindowExWthat triggered the crash.
Of those three locations, the only one that looked off was location 2:
6b1f6611 56 push esi 6b1f6612 ff15f033e975 call dword ptr [combase!CClassCache::CLSvrClassEntry::GetDDEInfo+0x41 (75e933f0)] 6b1f6618 c3 ret 6b1f6619 7106 jno xul!`anonymous namespace'::CreateWindowExWHook+0x6 (6b1f6621) xul!`anonymous namespace'::CreateWindowExWHook: 6b1f661b cc int 3 6b1f661c cc int 3 6b1f661d cc int 3 6b1f661e cc int 3 6b1f661f cc int 3 6b1f6620 cc int 3 6b1f6621 ff ???
Why the hell were the first six bytes filled with breakpoint instructions?
I decided at this point to look at some source code. Fortunately Microsoft publishes the 32-bit source code for Detours, licensed for non-profit use, under the name “Detours Express.”
I found a copy of Detours Express 2.1 and checked out the code. First I wanted
to know where all of these
0xcc bytes were coming from. A quick
up what I was looking for:
93 94 95 96 97 98 99
Now that I knew which function was generating the
int 3 instructions, I then
wanted to find its callers. Soon I found:
1247 1248 1249 1250 1251
Okay, so Detours writes the breakpoints out immediately after it has written a
jmp pointing to its trampoline.
Why is our hook function being trampolined?
The reason must be because our hook was installed first! Detours has detected that and has decided that the best place to trampoline to the NVIDIA hook is at the beginning of our hook function.
But Detours is using the wrong address!
We can see that because the
int 3 instructions are written out at the
CreateWindowExWHook, even though there should be a
Detours is calculating the wrong address to write its
Finding a Workaround
Once I knew what the problem was, I needed to know more about the why – only then would I be able to come up with a way to work around this problem.
I decided to reconstruct the scenario where both our code and Detours are trying
to hook the same function, but our hook was installed first. I would then
follow along through the Detours code to determine how it calculated the wrong
address to install its
The first thing to keep in mind is that Mozilla’s function interception code
takes advantage of hot-patch points
in Windows. If the target function begins with a
mov edi, edi prolog, we
use a hot-patch style hook instead of a trampoline hook. I am not going to go
into detail about hot-patch hooks here – the above Raymond Chen link contains
enough details to answer your questions. For the purposes of this blog post, the
important point is that Mozilla’s code patches the
mov edi, edi, so NVIDIA’s
Detours library would need to recognize and follow the
jmps that our code
patched in, in order to write its own
Tracing through the Detours code, I found the place where it checks for a
hot-patch hook and follows the
jmp if necessary. While examining a function
detour_skip_jmp, I found the bug:
This code is supposed to be telling Detours where the target address of a
is, so that Detours can follow it.
pbNew is supposed to be the target address
pbCode is referencing the address of the beginning of the
instruction itself. Unfortunately, with this type of
jmp instruction, target
addresses are always relative to the address of the next instruction, not
the current instruction! Since the current
jmp instruction is five bytes
long, Detours ends up writing its
jmp five bytes prior to the intended
I went and checked the source code for Detours Express 3.0 to see if this had been fixed, and indeed it had:
That doesn’t do much for me right now, however, since the NVIDIA stuff is still using Detours 2.x.
In the case of Mozilla’s code, there is legitimate executable code at that incorrect address that Detours writes to. It is corrupting the last few instructions of that function, thus explaining those mysterious crashes that were seemingly unrelated code.
I confirmed this by downloading the binaries from the build that was associated with the crash dump that I was analyzing. [As an aside, I should point out that you need to grab the identical binaries for this exercise; you cannot build from the same source revision and expect this to work due to variability that is introduced into builds by things like PGO.]
The five bytes preceeding
CreateWindowExHookW in the crash dump diverged from
those same bytes in the original binaries. I could also make out that the
overwritten bytes consisted of a
Let us now review what we know at this point:
- Detours 2.x doesn’t correctly follow
jmps from hot-patch hooks;
- If Detours tries to hook something that has already been hot-patched (including legitimate hot patches from Microsoft), it will write bytes at incorrect addresses;
- NVIDIA Optimus injects this buggy code into everybody’s address spaces via an
How can we best distill this into a suitable workaround?
One option could be to block the NVIDIA DLLs outright. In most cases this would probably be the simplest option, but I was hesitant to do so this time. I was concerned about the unintended consequences of blocking what, for better or worse, is a user-mode component of NVIDIA video drivers.
Instead I decided to take advantage of the fact that we now know how this bug is triggered. I have modified our API interception code such that if it detects the presence of NVIDIA Optimus, it disables hot-patch style hooks.
Not only will this take care of the crash spike that started when I landed bug 1213567, I also expect it to take care of other crash signatures whose relationship to this bug was not obvious.
That concludes this episode of Bugs from Hell. Until next time…